The uses of juices and C. E. Clinkard

In the 1930s, in California, author and raw food proponent Dr. Norman Walker invented the first juicing machine which enabled juicing to become more easily available in the home. Although the health benefits of drinking fruit juice are now being questioned by nutritionists, in the 1930s and 40s juicing was seen as an efficient way to encourage people to consume more fruit and vegetables.
Image: Food and drink poster, date unknown. Ephemera Collection.
Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections.

Helen Deem, born in Wellington in 1900, worked as a doctor, a Plunket medical adviser and a university lecturer. The poster above was perhaps the kind Deem was thinking about when she drew attention to the contrast between public health campaigns and popular habits during an Auckland Provincial Plunket Society Conference. Deem complained that ‘beautiful posters’ in railway refreshment rooms ‘urge the public to eat nutritious food, yet the meals inside consist to a great extent of pies, white bread and strong tea’.

‘Health cocktails: how to make them (according to the new science of vegetable juice therapy): a guide to health and longevity…, an Australian book from 1939, reflects the growing popularity of juicing as a health choice and as a more effective way to get the benefits of fruit and vegetables than by eating them.

Physical ailments are often attributed to bad nutrition, but this wonderful illustration from ‘Health cocktails…’ takes the relationship between food and health even further and ascribes mental and even moral defects to an unhealthy diet.

Image: Illustration from: Dr Paul Koonin. 'Health cocktails...' Sydney: Harry Coy, 1939, page 18.

Seven years later, on this side of the Tasman, C. E. Clinkard published 'The uses of juices' which has proven to be remarkably popular and has now run to eight editions. It advocates for the health benefits of juice and includes suggested fruit and vegetable combinations and recipes.

Below are images of the covers of the first edition from 1946 and the most recent edition from 2007.

Mr Charles Ernest Clinkard was awarded the MBE for his service on the Headquarters staff of the British Red Cross in France during the First World War. He and his first wife, Sarah Evelyn Stokes, emigrated to New Zealand in 1920. He quickly became active in Auckland business circles, serving on the council of the Auckland Chamber of Commerce and serving a term as President of the Auckland Advertising Club in 1927. During this term in office the first New Zealand Advertising Exhibition was held.

Image: Portrait of Charles Ernest Clinkard from: Auckland Chamber of Commerce Journal, Feb 2 1931 p.15. Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections.

Clinkard began winning art prizes at school which led to him designing advertisements. Clinkard became a chief copywriter for one of the large advertising agencies in Fleet Street, London, and handled the first advertising of New Zealand honey in England.

As well as being a prominent early adman, Clinkard was involved in publishing as well. He was one of a group of ten businessmen who were the original investors who started up The Ladies’ mirror and was also involved in establishing several other magazines, including New Zealand Health News, the Link and the Golden Bloom. Clinkard had a great interest in public health, writing and publishing books on various health topics and he was the managing director of Vitamin Products Ltd. Some of his other publications available at Auckland Libraries are: 'Eating for health' and 'Soya: the wonder food', both of which ran to multiple editions.

Many Heritage Collections items in this blog post feature in our 'Food for thought' exhibition. This exhibition has been extended till Sunday 14 February, in the gallery space, on level 2 of Tāmaki Pātaka Kōrero | Central City Library. The exhibition includes rare books, manuscripts, menus, posters and oral histories, and celebrates the role food plays in family, belonging and culture.